There are several potential causes of poor growth and short stature. Non-hormone causes include poor nutrition and systemic illnesses like anemia, liver, or kidney disease. There are also genetic syndromes that lead to poor growth including Turner syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Russell-Silver syndrome, and other rare genetic disorders. In addition, if an infant was born small for gestational age (SGA), then they may not have appropriate catch-up growth. Hormone causes include untreated low thyroid, delayed puberty, or a problem with growth hormone or IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1). The evaluation is extensive to determine the appropriate cause of the short stature. Treatment is then tailored specifically to the underling condition.
Human Growth Foundation:
Turner syndrome society:
Prader-Willi syndrome society:
National Organization for Rare Disorders: